Linguistics of language and speech Linguistics
In his semiotic work a course in general linguistics, Saussure, the founder of modern linguistics, divided language into two categories: linguistic linguistics and speech linguistics.
Language refers to written language and speaking refers to spoken language; Written language is a social part of speech activities. It is not controlled by individual will. It is a social psychological phenomenon shared by social members. Oral English is a part of speech activities governed by individual will. It has the characteristics of individual pronunciation, word use and sentence making. However, no matter how different individual characteristics are, individuals in the same community can communicate with each other.
Linguistics of language and Linguistics of speech -- Saussure
While establishing the science of language in the whole field of speech research, I have also outlined the whole of linguistics. All the other elements of speech - those that make up speech - are automatically subordinate to this first science, and it is because of this subordination that the various parts of linguistics have found their natural place.
For example, we can consider the vocalization that is necessary for speech. For language, the articulatory organ is external, just as the electrical equipment used to transmit Morse code is external to the code itself; Moreover, pronunciation, that is, the completion of voice image, will never affect the system itself. At this point, we can compare language to symphony. In fact, what symphony is has nothing to do with how to play it; The mistakes that musicians make when playing symphonies do not change this fact.
There is an argument against separating pronunciation from language. The view of phonetic change holds that the phonetic change in speech will have a far-reaching impact on the future of language itself. Do we really have the right to think that language exists independently of phonetic changes? Yes, because they only affect the material shell of words. If they affect the language as a symbol system, it is only indirectly caused by different interpretations. There is no phonetic component in this phenomenon.
It may be interesting to determine the causes of these phonetic changes, and the study of phonetics will be helpful; However, these are not the most essential things: for language science, what we need to do is to observe the changes of pronunciation and consider their effects.
What we said above about pronunciation also applies to all other parts of speech. The speaker's activities should be studied in multiple disciplines. Only when these disciplines are related to language can they find their own position in linguistics.
Therefore, the study of speech is twofold: the basic part of this study - taking language as its research object is purely social, independent of individuals, and psychological; Its secondary part - Taking the personal part of speech as the research object, that is, speech, including pronunciation, is psychophysical.
Undoubtedly, the two objects are closely linked and interdependent: if language is to be understood and effective, then language is necessary; But the establishment of language is also inseparable from speech, and from a historical point of view, the actual existence of speech is often in the first place. If a speaker does not first encounter a certain connection between concepts and word images in his speech acts, how can he produce such associations? In addition, we learn our mother tongue by listening to others; Only after countless experiences can it be stored in our brain. Finally, it is speech that makes language change: the impression we get from listening to others changes our language habits. Language and speech are therefore interdependent; The former is both a tool and a product of the latter. But their interdependence does not prevent them from becoming two distinct things.
Language exists in the form of all the impressions stored in the brains of each member of a group, almost like distributing the same copy of a dictionary to everyone.
Language exists in every individual and is shared by all. And not controlled by the will of the storer. Its existence mode can be expressed by the following formula:
1 + 1 + 1 +... = 1 (collective model)
What role do words play in the same group? It is the sum of what people say, including: (1) individual connections that depend on the speaker's will; (2) The same will related pronunciation behavior required to achieve these connections.
Therefore, speech is not a collective tool; Its manifestation is personal and temporary. There is only the sum of special acts in speech. The formula is:
(1 + 1 + 1 ″ ′ + 1 ″ ′...)
For all these reasons, it is impractical to understand language and speech from the same point of view. Speech cannot be studied as a whole because it is not homogeneous; But the distinction and attribution mentioned here can clarify the whole argument.
This is the first fork in the road when we try to construct a speech theory. We must choose between these two routes. These two roads cannot be taken at the same time, but must be chosen separately.
If necessary, people can apply the name of linguistics to these two disciplines, that is, the linguistics of speech. However, that cannot be confused with linguistics in the strict sense. The only object of linguistics in the strict sense is language.
We will only discuss the linguistics of language, and we will try not to erase the boundary between these two fields if we want to clarify a point with materials belonging to speech.