首页口语听力阅读公说公有理婆说婆有理,四个说各有千秋,包括 say 和 speak 在内

公说公有理婆说婆有理,四个说各有千秋,包括 say 和 speak 在内

woniu 08-01 14:05 7次浏览 0条评论

#英语词汇辨析#

英语中有四个单词,都涉及到”说“,它们是 say,tell,talk 和 speak;虽然它们意思相近,但是用法截然不同,基本上不能互换使用。

一、say

Say 是最普通用词,最常用于直接和间接言语,后面通常不接表示人的宾语,意为“说,讲,告诉”,指用语言表达思想,侧重于所说的具体内容,例如:

She said (that) she would be late.

她说她要迟到了。

She said (that) it was my last chance.

她说这是我最后的机会。

He said (that) his name was Sam.

他说他叫萨姆。

当 say 要接表示人的宾语时,在 say 后面用介词 to 来引出告诉的对象,且有的时候用 that 引出要表达的信息,例如:

He said to Steve that he was going to be late.

他对史蒂夫说他要迟到了。

'Keep your temper,' he said to himself.

“别生气。”他暗暗告诉自己。

二、tell

1. Tell 是普通用词,指直接给某人讲述或以间接的方式转述某事,通常指通过说或写的方式,常接双宾语或复合宾语;可以用于直接和间接言语,后面必须接宾语,相当于 instruct 或 inform,意为“告诉,告知”,例如:

He told everybody (that) he saw the news.

他逢人便讲这个消息。

I told you about the party.

我告诉过你派对的事。

Have you told him the news?

你告诉他这个消息了吗?

‘I'm ready to go now,’ he told her.

“我准备走了。”他对她说。

2. Tell 有时含嘱托、命令之意,常用于结构 tell sb to do sth 中,例如:

Tom’s mother told him to clean his room.

汤姆的妈妈叫他打扫房间。

He was told to sit down and wait.

有人吩咐他坐下等着。

Do what I tell you.

你要照我的吩咐做。

Didn’t I tell you to mind your own business?

我不是告诉过你别管闲事吗?

3. Tell 不能与类似 a word,a name,a sentence 和 a phrase 等短语连用,例如:

爱丽丝说了一句调皮的话。

✔: Alice said a naughty word.

❌: Alice told a naughty word.

4. 当涉及一个事实时,通常 it 不能与 tell 连用,例如:

我明天告诉你。

✔: I’ll tell you tomorrow.

❌: I’ll tell you it tomorrow.

三、talk

Talk 是普通用词,常用于指非正式的交流。

1. 用作不及物动词时,侧重指与人交谈时的连续说话,可指单方面较长谈话,因此在口语中常跟进行时连用,强调说话的动作而非内容,例如:

When she walked into the room everybody stopped talking.

当她走进房间时,大家都不说话了。

I don't understand what you're talking about.

我不懂你在说什么。

2. 用作及物动词时,sense,nonsense,business 或 rubbish 等,例如:

Now let's talk business.

现在咱们谈正事。

He's talking nonsense.

他在胡说八道。

3. Talk 常跟介词 to 或 with 连用来引出交谈的对象,且有的时候用 about 引出具体的内容,例如:

I need to talk to you about last night.

我要和你谈谈昨晚的事。

Did he talk to you about his trip?

他跟你谈过他的旅行吗?

四、speak

1. Speak 作不及物动词时,侧重的是说话的动作而非内容,可指长篇演讲或三言两语的交谈,也可指简单地开口说话的能力,例如:

After she had finished reading the letter, nobody spoke.

她读完信后,没有人说话。

He spoke at the meeting.

他在会议上发言了。

2. Speak 作及物动词时,其宾语常为某种语言,例如:

Can you speak Chinese?

你会说汉语吗?

She speaks three languages fluently.

她能流利地说三种语言。

3. Speak 常跟介词 to/with 连用来引出说话的对象,且有的时候用 about 引出具体的内容,例如:

I've spoken to the manager about it.

那件事我已经和经理谈过了。

Did you speak to him about our new project?

你和他谈过我们的新项目了吗?

五、四者的区别

1. Say 和 tell 能用于间接或直接引语中,而 talk 和 speak 不能.

2. 表达侧重说话内容的用 say,且后面常不接表示人的宾语;侧重说话动作的用 tell 或 speak,其中 tell 后面必须接宾语。

3. 谈论语言时,只用 speak.

4. 当后面必须接表示人的宾语时,只用 tell,若其他要接表示人的宾语,则用介词 to 或 with 引出对象。

5. 表示命令或嘱咐时,只用 tell,不用其他的。

六、常犯的错误

1. say 后面不能直接跟表示人的宾语,例如:

他告诉我他必须离开。

✔: He told me that he had to leave.

❌: He said me that he had to leave.

2. 虽然 talk 和 speak 都侧重说话的动作,但是 talk 后面不能跟表示语言的宾语,例如:

我不会说中文。

✔: I don’t speak Chinese.

❌: I don’t talk Chinese.

关注外语行天下,后期会更精彩。

英语口语阅读
Is there a new standard for blood sugar? 3.9-6.1 it has become a history. Different age standards are different. You may wish to check yourself Don't use 'ugly' to describe ugliness. Here are the more cruel words!
相关内容
发表评论

游客 回复需填写必要信息